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曾道人点特图片:《裝卸時間與滯期費》第3章-裝卸時間的起算-66

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  《裝卸時間與滯期費》第6版

  CHAPTER 3 第3章

  Commencement of laytime 裝卸時間的起算

  3.424 In the case of a port charter, the clause was of more importance prior to the decision of the House of Lords in The Johanna Oldendorff when their Lordships’ earlier ruling in The Aello held sway. This was because under the latter the vessel did not reach its speci?ed destination unless it had arrived at a more proximate point to the place of discharge. However, the major judicial consideration of the clause has not been directed to the geographical point which a vessel must reach before the clause becomes applicable, but to the question as to whether laytime exceptions are applicable to waiting time.

  3.424在港口租船合同的情況下,上議院對The Johanna OldendoHf—案作出裁定以前,也就是這些大法官們早期對The Aello—案的判決還在占著統治地位的時候,該條款具有較重要的作用。這是因為根據The Aello—案所確立的原則,船舶只有到達了距離卸貨地點更接近的地方才算抵達其指定的目的地。然而,這一條款主要的司法考慮并不是船舶必須抵達的地理位置能否適用該條款,而是裝卸時間的除外條款是否適用于等泊時間。

  3.425 Before considering the various decisions relating to the clause, it may be helpful to remember the commercial reasoning behind its introduction. This was said by Lord Diplock to be as follows:

  In a berth charter the effect of the clause is to put the shipowner in the same position ?nancially as he would have been if, instead of being compelled to wait, his vessel had been able to go straight to her berth and the obligations of the charterer to carry out the loading or discharging operation had started then. In a port charter the clauses are super?uous so far as concerns time spent in waiting in turn within the limits of the port. This counts as laytime anyway; it is laytime. The clauses would, however, have the same effect as in a berth charter in respect of ports like Hull or Glasgow where the usual waiting place is outside the limits of the port.

  3.425在探討對這一條款的各種判決以前,首先看看引入該條款背后的商業理由,這會有幫助的。Diplock勛爵這樣解釋:

  在泊位租船合同中,該條款的作用是將船東置于他本應該處的同等經濟地位,就好像他沒有被強迫等待,他的船舶本應該能夠直接靠泊并且承租人隨后就開始進行作業履行裝卸貨的義務那樣。在港口租船合同中,就其在港界內依次等待靠泊所花費的時間而言,這一條款就顯得多余了。因為,該時間本來就是應該計入裝卸時間的;它就是裝卸時間。然而,在泊位租船合同下,像Hull或Glasgow這類通常等候區位于港外的港口而言,這種條款也會具有同樣的效力。

  3.426 The judicial history of this type of clause starts with North River Freighters Ltd v. President of India (The Radnor). This involved a berth charter. It had been contended by the charterer that time for loading did not start to run under the Gencon ‘‘time lost’’ clause until notice of readiness to load had been given. The only question of law for the decision of the court was whether this was so. The Court of Appeal held, reversing McNair J, that it was not. On this Singleton LJ said:

  The time lost is to count as, or to be added to, loading time in order to ascertain the position between the parties. I am unable to accept the view that under the words in line 67 time is not lost until notice has been given under clause 17.

  Commenting on this in The Darrah, Lord Diplock said:

  The correctness of the actual decision in The Radnor is not in doubt. It cannot have been intended that notice of readiness is required to start time running under the ‘‘time lost’’ clause, for if it were the clause could have no application in a berth charter, for which it is primarily designed, since notice of readiness under such a charter could never be given until the period of waiting was over and the vessel was already in berth.
  


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